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Convention's Facts and Figures

 


Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention: Facts and Figures Information as of 15 January 2019

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What is the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention?

  • This is a short way of referring to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, also known as the Ottawa Convention.
  • The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is the international community’s comprehensive response to the humanitarian problems caused by anti-personnel mines, weapons that are indiscriminate and that last for decades after conflicts have ended.
  • The Convention was adopted in Oslo on 18 September 1997 and opened for signature in Ottawa on 3 and 4 December 1997 at a ceremony that featured the participation of dozens of world leaders. In 2017, the 20th anniversary of the signature of the Convention was celebrated.
  • For their determination in calling for the Convention, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and its coordinator Jody Williams were awarded the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize.
  • The Convention entered into force on 1 March 1999.
  • At their Third Review Conference in 2014, States Parties adopted at a high political level the Maputo + 15 Declaration in which they committed to intensify efforts to promote universal adherence and observance of the Convention’s norms, destroy stockpiled anti-personnel mines, address mined areas and assist mine victims and expressed their aspiration to meet their goals to the fullest extent possible by 2025. At the same conference, States Parties further adopted the Maputo Action Plan 2014 – 2019 to guide their efforts.
  • In 2019, the Convention is presided over by Norway. Norway intends to bring renewed political attention to the Mine Ban Convention. The Maputo goal of a mine free world by 2025 remains the objective. Next year´s Review Conference provides an opportunity to refocus efforts and to make a plan for the achievement of the objectives of the Convention. Norway’s efforts will culminate during the Fourth Review Conference which will take place in Oslo on 25-29 November 2019. 

What is the purpose of the Convention?


The purpose of the Convention is “to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines” through the pursuit of four core aims:

  • Universal acceptance of a ban on anti-personnel mines
  • Destruction of stockpiled anti-personnel mines
  • Clearance of mined areas
  • Assistance to mine victims
How many countries have joined?


164 States have ratified or acceded to the Convention. They include:

 

  • Most of the States that at one time used, stockpiled, produced or transferred anti-personnel mines
  • The vast majority of States that are or have been affected by anti-personnel mines
  • Every State in the Americas, except Cuba and the United States
  • Every State in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Every Member State of the European Union

Year
Number of
ratifications / accessions
Year Number of
ratifications / accessions
19973320064
19985520074
1999322008-2010-
20001920112
20011320123
200282013-
20031120141
200432015-2016-
2005420172

There are 33 States not party to the Convention, including one signatory State*.

       

 

ArmeniaKorea, DPR ofNepal
AzerbaijanKorea, Republic ofPakistan
BahrainKyrgyzstan Russian Federation
ChinaLao PDR Saudi Arabia
CubaLebanon Singapore
EgyptLibya Syrian Arab Republic
Georgia Marshall Islands*Tonga
India Micronesia, Federated States ofUnited Arab Emirates
Iran Mongolia United States of America
Israel Morocco Uzbekistan
Kazakhstan Myanmar Vietnam

At the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly, 16 States not party voted in favour of the resolution on the implementation of the Convention (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lao PDR, Libya, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Singapore, Tonga and the United Arab Emirates), 15 States not party abstained (Cuba, DPRK, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, USA and Vietnam) and 2 were not present (Lebanon and Uzbekistan).

How much progress has been achieved since 1999 and what is the remaining challenge?


Destroying stockpiled anti-personnel mines

 

States Parties have four years after entry-into-force to destroy all stockpiled anti-personnel mines under their jurisdiction or control.

  • Of the 91 States Parties that reported stockpiled anti-personnel mines, 88 have completed their stockpile destruction programmes, with over 51.8 million stockpiled anti-personnel mines destroyed.
  • In addition, 13 States Parties have reported the destruction of approximately 205,000 previously unknown stockpiled anti-personnel mines after deadlines had passed.
  • The work continues for Greece, Sri Lanka and Ukraine which together still hold approximately 4.9 million stockpiled anti-personnel mines.
State PartyAnti-Personnel mines
remaining to be destroyed

Art.4 projected completion date


Greece
439,585By the end of September 2019

Sri Lanka
56,712By 1 August 2020
Ukraine 


4,473,4612021
Total4,969,758

 

 

Retaining anti-personnel mines for permitted purposes

There are 75 States Parties which reported retaining 164,833 anti-personnel mines for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance, or mine destruction techniques as permitted by Article 3 of the Convention.

A total of 16,903 anti-personnel mines previously retained under Article 3 were destroyed during the course of 2017.

A number of States Parties have not reported on the use or plans for the use of retained anti-personnel mines in accordance with the purposes permitted by Article 3 and/or have retained the same number of anti-personnel mines for a number of years.

Destroying anti-personnel mines in mined areas

States Parties shall make every effort to identify all areas under their jurisdiction or control in which anti-personnel mines are known or suspected to be emplaced.

States Parties have ten years to destroy all anti-personnel mines in mined areas and return these areas to a state for normal human activity. If the States Parties are unable to do so in ten years, they may ask for an extension of their deadlines.

Of the 63 States Parties that have reported mined areas, 31 have reported that they have completed implementation of their mine clearance obligations in compliance with the Convention, with tens of millions of square metres of previously dangerous land due to the presence or suspected presence of anti-personnel mines released. 

 

1999: Bulgaria
2002: Costa Rica
2004: Djibouti and Honduras
2005: Guatemala and Suriname
2006: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
2007: Swaziland
2008: France and Malawi
2009: Albania, Greece, Rwanda, Tunisia and Zambia
2010: Nicaragua
2011: Nigeria
2012: Congo, Republic of, Denmark, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Jordan and Uganda
2013: Bhutan, Germany, Hungary and Venezuela
2014: Burundi
2015: Mozambique
2017: Algeria
2018: Mauritania

 


32 States Parties are still in the process of fulfilling their mine clearance obligations, the majority of which have faced circumstances that have led them to request extensions. 

 

State Party  

Article 5 deadline 

State Party 

Article 5 deadline

Aghanistan 1 March 2023Oman 1 February 2025
Angola31 December 2025Peru31 December 2024
Argentina1 January 2020Senegal 1 March 2021
Bosnia and Herzegovina1 January 2021Serbia1 March 2023
Cambodia 
1 March 2021Somalia1 October 2026
Chad 1 January 2020South Sudan9 July 2021
Chile1 March 2020Sri Lanka 1 June 2028
Colombia 1 March 2021State of Palestine 1 June 2028
Croatia 31 December 2025Sudan 1 April 2023
Cyprus1 July 2022Tajikistan1 April 2020
DRC1 January 2021Thailand31 October 2023
Ecuador31 December 2022Turkey1 March 2022
Eritrea1 February 2020Ukraine1 June 2021
Ethiopia 1 June 2020United Kingdom1 March 2024
Iraq1 February 2028Yemen1 March 2020
Niger 31 December 2020Zimbabwe31 December 2025

 

Assisting the victims


The Convention was the first multilateral arms control / disarmament convention to include provisions to assist the victims of the weapons in question. In doing so, the Convention established a new norm.

  • 30 States Parties have indicated that they have significant numbers – hundreds or thousands – of landmine survivors for which they must provide care.
  • States Parties have agreed that victim assistance should be integrated into broader national policies, plans and legal frameworks, including those related to the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • The Convention has served as a catalyst for drawing attention to the plight of landmine survivors – and hence the challenges of all persons with disabilities – in some of the world’s poorest countries.

National implementation measures

Each State Party shall take all appropriate legal, administrative and other measures, including the imposition of penal sanctions, to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited to a State Party under this Convention undertaken by persons or on territory under its jurisdiction or control.

In the context of Article 9 obligations, 66 States Parties have reported that they have adopted legislation and 37 States Parties have reported that they consider existing laws to be sufficient.

61 States Parties have not yet reported having either adopted legislation or that they consider existing laws to be sufficient.

Of these 61 States Parties, some have reported that they have drafted specific legislation but that it has not yet been adopted or that legislation is being considered but they have not provided updated information for a number of years.

 

Implementation Support

The Implementation Support Unit


The implementation of the Convention is supported by a secretariat based in Geneva and called the Implementation Support Unit (ISU).

The ISU is mandated to provide support to the Convention machinery as a whole and to provide advice and technical support to individual States Parties implementing the Convention.

The ISU conducts its work in coordination with all relevant organisations which participate in the work of the Convention.

The ISU is funded on a voluntary basis by the States Parties to the Convention.

In 2018, the ISU Voluntary Trust Fund has so far received contributions from 23 States Parties: Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United Kingdom.

The Committees of the Convention


Since the Third Review Conference, four Committees work in support of the implementation of the Convention and provide assistance to States Parties in fulfilling their commitments.

I. The Committee on Article 5 Implementation works to intensify efforts particularly those outlined in the Maputo Action Plan, to ensure that Article 5 of the Convention (clearing mined areas) is fully implemented as soon as possible.

Chair

  Netherlands | 2018-2019     

 

Other members

  Austria     |  2019-2020

  Canada    |   2019-2020 

  Colombia  |  2018-2019    

II. The Committee on Cooperative Compliance assists the States Parties in acting upon their commitment under Article 8.1 of the Convention to work together in a spirit of cooperation to facilitate compliance in a supportive and amicable manner.

Mandate

The Committee on Cooperative Compliance considers whether a concern about compliance with the Convention’s prohibitions (Article 1.1) is potentially credible and, if so, considers any follow up that might be appropriate for States Parties to better understand the situation.

When appropriate, the Committee, in close consultation with the States Parties concerned, clarifies the situation. If as a result it assesses that the concern is credible, it makes suggestions on steps that the States Parties concerned could take to ensure that the Convention remains strong and effective.

For cases where the concern is credible, the Committee presents preliminary observations at intersessional meetings and conclusions and recommendations at Meetings of the States Parties or Review Conferences.

Membership

The Committee is composed of the President of the Convention (Chair of the Committee) and four States Parties serving overlapping two-year terms. The current members of the Committee on Cooperative Compliance are:

Chair

  Norway | 2019

Other members

  Iraq | 2019-2020

  Poland | 2018-2019

 

 Switzerland | 2019-2020

  Zambia | 2018-2019

III. The Committee on Victim Assistance supports the States Parties in their national efforts to strengthen and advance victim assistance, particularly in States Parties with mine victims in areas under their jurisdiction or control.

Mandate

The Committee on Victim Assistance provides advice to the States Parties in the fulfilment of their commitments related to victim assistance under the Maputo Action Plan and assists these States Parties in making their needs known.

It presents conclusions and recommendations on progress, achievements and challenges at intersessional meetings and Meetings of the States Parties or Review Conferences.

The Committee takes initiatives to facilitate discussions on enhancing victim assistance and to ensure the wellbeing of mine victims.

It raises awareness in relevant fora of the importance of addressing the needs and guaranteeing the rights of mine victims in broader domains such as health care, disability and human rights, development, poverty reduction and employment.

Membership

The Committee is composed of four States Parties serving overlapping two-year terms. Each year, the Committee selects a chair among the members serving the second year of their terms. The current members of the Committee on Victim Assistance are:

Chair

 Mozambique | 2018-2019

Other members

 Belgium | 2018-2019 

 Chile | 2019-2020

 Italy | 2019-2020

 

The Committee draws on the expertise of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as observers and invites other States Parties, the United Nations and other relevant international and non-governmental organisations to participate in its work on an ad hoc basis.

IV. The Committee on the Enhancement of Cooperation and Assistance supports the States Parties in the full implementation of Article 6 of the Convention, in line with their reaffirmation that ending the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines is a shared commitment.

Mandate

The Committee on the Enhancement of Cooperation and Assistance promotes cooperation and assistance under the Convention, including by organizing or encouraging the organization of multilateral, regional or national dialogues on cooperation and assistance, in Geneva or elsewhere.

The Committee facilitates the fostering of partnerships between States Parties seeking to receive assistance and those in a position to provide such assistance, including through the use of information exchange tools, such as the Platform for Partnerships.

The Committee coordinates with other implementation mechanisms established by the States Parties in order to facilitate and accelerate the full implementation of the Convention.

Membership

The Committee is composed of four States Parties serving overlapping two-year terms, including an affected State Party and a State Party that is a provider of support or assistance. Each year, the Committee selects a chair among the members serving the second year of their terms. The current members of the Committee on the Enhancement of Cooperation and Assistance are:

Chair

  Sweden | 2018-2019

Other members

  Thailand | 2018-2019

 Turkey | 2019-2020

 United Kingdom | 2019-2020

The Committee draws on the expertise of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and invites other States Parties, the United Nations and other relevant international and non-governmental organisations to participate in its work on an ad hoc basis.

 

The Coordinating Committee

The Coordinating Committee coordinates the work flowing from and related to formal and informal meetings of the States Parties and also fulfils responsibilities related to the accountability of the Implementation Support Unit.

The Coordinating Committee is composed of the Convention’s President, the President-designate and the members of the Committee on Article 5 Implementation, the Committee on Cooperative Compliance, the Committee on Victim Assistance, and the Committee on the Enhancement of Cooperation and Assistance.

The Coordinating Committee invites the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) as observers.